No matter which way the feedback flows, there are a few things you can do to make sure it’s useful, meaningful, and productive – no matter who you’re talking to.
Stage 1: Clarify what good performance is
Students can only achieve learning goals if they understand those goals, assume some ownership of them, and can assess progress (Sadler, 1989; Black & Wiliam, 1998). If students do not share their teacher’s conceptions of assessment goals (and criteria and standards) then the feedback information they receive is unlikely to ‘connect’ (Hounsell, 1997).
One way of clarifying task requirements (goals/criteria/standards) is to provide students with written documents. However, many studies have shown that it is difficult to make assessment explicit, therefore, strategies must include verbal explanations.